The main objectives of the Act are as follows: a To provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution. Under Section 45 A: Whoever contravenes any of the provisions of this act or fails to comply with any order or direction given under this act, for which no penalty has been elsewhere provided in this Act, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both. In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing functions, the Central Board may- Advice the Central Government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of water pollution. The Board can predicate its consent upon the fulfillment of certain conditions. Where it is apprehended by a Board that the water in any stream or well is likely to be polluted by reason of the disposal or likely disposal of any matter in such stream or well or in any sewer or on any land, or otherwise, the Board may make an application to a court, not inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the first class, for restraining the person who is likely to cause such pollution from so causing.
Under Section 24 : No person shall discharge any poisonous, noxious or any polluting matter into any stream, or well or sewer or on land. Every State Board shall, during each financial year, prepare, in such form as may be prescribed, an annual report giving full account of its activities under this Act during the previous financial year and copies thereof shall be forwarded to the State Government within four months from the last date of the previous financial year and that Government shall cause every such report to be laid before the State Legislature within a period of nine months from the last date of the previous financial year. Protection of action taken in good faith. Opportunities for source reduction are often not realized because of existing regulations, and the industrial resources required for compliance, focus on treatment and disposal. The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act was enacted in 1974 to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution, and for the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water in the country. The Board may establish or recognise a laboratory or laboratories to enable the Board to perform its functions under this section efficiently, including the analysis of samples of water from any stream or well or of samples of any sewage or trade effluents.
Water under Class E is used for irrigation and industrial cooling along with waste disposal. In processing, whereby water gets polluted and pollutants are easily biodegradable. It also coordinates activities, provides technical assistance and guidance to state boards in addition to setting the standards for quality of air. Power of Central Government to exempt the levy of water cess 1 Notwithstanding anything contained in section 3, the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, exempt any industry, consuming water below the quantity specified in the notification, from the levy of water cess. Under Section 27 : A state board may from time-to-time review any condition imposed by it on the person under Sections 25 and 26 and may vary or revoke that condition. Functions of the State Boards: a To plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention, control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells in the State and to secure the execution thereof b To advise the State Government on any matter concerning the prevention, control or abatement of water pollution c To collect and disseminate information relating to water pollution and the prevention, control or abatement thereof d To encourage, conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention, control or abatement of water pollution e To collaborate with the Central Board in organizing the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes relating to prevention, control or abatement of water pollution and to organise mass education programmes relating thereto f To inspect sewage or trade effluents, works and plants for the treatment of sewage and trade effluents and to review plans, specifications or other data relating to plants set up for the treatment of water, works for the purification thereof and the system for the disposal of sewage or trade effluents or in connection with the grant of any consent as required by this Act g To lay down, modify or annul effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents and for the quality of receiving waters not being water in an inter-State stream resulting from the discharge of effluents and to classify waters of the State h To evolve economical and reliable methods of treatment of sewage and trade effluents, having regard to the peculiar conditions of soils, climate and water resources of different regions and more especially the prevailing flow characteristics of water in streams and wells which render it impossible to attain even the minimum degree of dilution i To evolve methods of utilization of sewage and suitable trade effluents in agriculture To evolve efficient methods of disposal of sewage and trade effluents on land, as are necessary on account of the predominant conditions of scant stream flows that do not provide for major part of the year the minimum degree of dilution j To lay down standards of treatment of sewage and trade effluents to be discharged into any particular stream taking into account the minimum fair weather dilution available in that stream and the tolerance limits of pollution permissible in the water of the stream, after the discharge of such effluents k To make, vary or revoke any order i? Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section 3 of section 12, the Central Board or, as the case may be, the State Board may, by notification in the Official Gazette, and with the approval of the Central Government or the State Government, as the case may be, appoint such persons as it thinks fit and having the prescribed qualifications to be Board analysts for the purpose of analysis of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent sent for analysis to any laboratory established or recognised under section 16, or, as the case may be, under section 17. What are the functions of the State Boards under the Water Act 1974? It makes provisions, interalia, for Central and State Boards, power to declare pollution control areas, restrictions on certain industrial units, authority of the Boards to limit emission of air pollutants, power of entry, inspection, taking samples and analysis, penalties, offences by companies and Government and cognizance of offences etc.
. The government formulated this act in 1974 to prevent the pollution of water by industrial, agricultural and household wastewater that can contaminate our water sources. All expenses incurred by the Board in removing any matter in pursuance of the authorization under clause ii of sub-section 3 or in the disposal of any such matter may be defrayed out of any money obtained by the Board from such disposal and any balance outstanding shall be recoverable from the person concerned as arrears of land revenue or of public demand. Source reduction is fundamentally different and more desirable than waste management or pollution control. Play — Experience the ultimate balance House. Where a sample of any sewage or trade effluent has been sent for analysis to the laboratory established or recognised by the Central Board or, as the case may be, the State Board, the concerned Board analyst appointed under sub-section 3 of section 53 shall analyse the sample and submit a report in the prescribed form of the result of such analysis in triplicate to the Central Board or the State Board as the case may be. As in the Water Act, courts may hear complaints under the Act only at the instigation of, or with the sanction of, the State Board.
Where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company, every person who at the time the offence was committed was in charge of, and was responsible to the company for the conduct of, the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly: Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment provided in this Act if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence. Subject to the provisions of this Act, and to any direction that the Central Government may give in this behalf, a Board may issue any directions in writing to any person, officer or authority, and such person, officer or authority shall be bound to comply with such directions. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. Eg: water from tannery waste, industrial wastewater from electroplating industries Industries that have a treatment plant installed for treating their effluents can get a rebate of 70% on the cess payable. The section further states that every State Board is liable to maintain a register containing particulars or conditions imposed under the section related to any outlet, or to any effluent, from any land or premises which must be open to inspection by the state board.
If the offence continues, an additional fine may extend to Rs. The Board may establish or recognize a laboratory or laboratories to enable the Board to perform its functions under this section efficiently, including the analysis of samples of water from any stream or well or of samples of any sewage or trade effluents. The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act was enacted in 1974 to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution, and for the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water in the country. For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that any directions to perform the functions of any State Board given under sub-section 2 in respect of any area would not preclude the State Board from performing such functions in any other area in the State or any of its other functions in that area. Upon the publication of a notification under sub-section 1 superseding the State Board, the provisions of sub-sections 2 and 3 of section 61 shall apply in relation to the supersession of the State Board as they apply in relation to the supersession of the Central Board or a Joint Board by the Central Government. Any drinking water source which has been conventionally treated comes under Class C while water used for propagation of wildlife and fisheries is demarked as Class D. No court shall take cognizance of any offence except on a complaint made by any person who has given notice of not less than sixty days, in the manner prescribed, of the alleged offence and of his intention to make a complaint to the Board or officer authorized by the Board.
A State Board shall not grant its consent under sub-section 4 of section 25 for the establishment of any industry, operation or process, or treatment and disposal system or extension or addition thereto, or to the bringing into use of a new or altered outlet unless the industry, operation or process, or treatment and disposal system or extension or addition thereto, or the outlet is so established as to comply with any conditions imposed by the Board to enable it to exercise its right to take samples of the effluent. If there is any inconsistency or discrepancy between, or variation in the results of, the analysis carried out by the laboratory established or recognised by the Central Board or the State Board, as the case may be, and that of the laboratory established or specified under section 51 or section 52, as the case may be, the report of the latter shall prevail. This is measured in parts per million or in milligrams or micrograms per cubic meter. Power of entry Any officer or authority of the State Government specially empowered in this behalf by that Government may, a with such assistance, if any, as he or it may think fit, enter at any reasonable time any place which he or it considers it necessary to enter for carrying out the purposes of this Act including the testing of the correctness of the meters affixed under section 4; b do within such place anything necessary for the proper discharge of his or its duties under this Act; and c exercise such other powers as may be prescribed. Individuals can also do several things to reduce water pollution such as using biodegradable chemicals for household use, reducing the use of pesticides in gardens, and identifying polluting sources at work places and in industrial units where oil are or other petroleum products and heavy metals are used.
The-Board advises the Central Government on matters concerning the improvement of air quality and also coordinates activities, provides technical assistance and guidance to State Boards and lays down standards for the quality of air. Under Section 17: Functions of State Board : 1. Excessive organic matter, sediments and infecting organism from hospital wastes can also pollute our water. This Act is created to take appropriate steps for the preservation of the natural resources of the Earth which among other things includes the preservation of high quality air and ensures controlling the level of air pollution. All comments are however constantly reviewed for spam and irrelevant material such as product or personal advertisements, email addresses, telephone numbers and website address. Emergency measures in case of pollution of stream or well: 1. The state board of respective states is empowered to plan a comprehensive program for the prevention, control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells, collect and disseminate information relating to water pollution and encourage, conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention.
Under Section 18: Powers to Give Directions : In the performance of its functions under this Act: a The Central Board shall be bound by such directions in writing the Central Government may give to it; and b Every State Board shall be bound by such directions in writing as the Central Government or the State Government may give to it: Under Section 19 : The entire National Capital Territory of Delhi has been declared as water pollution prevention control area. The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Cess Act was enacted in 1977, to provide for the levy and collection of a cess on water consumed by persons operating and carrying on certain types of industrial activities. The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act provides for constitution of central and State Boards for preventing water pollution, power to take water samples and their analysis, discharge of sewage or trade effluents, appeals, revision, minimum and maximum penalties, publication of names of offenders, offences by companies and Government departments, cognizance of offences, water laboratories, analysis etc. Citizen needs to develop a watchdog force to inform authorities to appropriate actions against different types of water pollution. Delegation of power to chairman Sec. This cess is collected with a view to augment the resources of the Central Board and the State Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution constituted under the Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1974.
Provision regarding existing discharge of sewage or trade effluent. Where under this Act, any conditions have been imposed on any person while granting consent under section 25 or section 26 and such conditions require such person to execute any work in connection therewith and such work has not been executed within such time as may be specified in this behalf, the State Board may serve on the person concerned a notice requiring him within such time not being less than thirty days as may be specified in the notice to execute the work specified therein. Whether the industry is using water for industrial cooling, spraying in mine pits or boilers feed, 2. Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. The act permits restricted grazing in sanctuaries but prohibits the same in national parks. The Act was amended in the years 1978 and 1988.