The Diplomatic Background of the War. The war ushered in a new diplomatic period, with new diplomatic alignments, and both the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente receded into history. This alliance ensured that each country would support the other if a war ever broke out between one of the allies and another great power. Italy was part of the triple Alliance up until the beginning of World War I; however since Italy was completley unprepared for war and did not want to risk war with Britain and France due to their much greater naval power and Italy's vulnerability to attack by sea. Russia had also recently lost the humiliating , a cause of the and the apparent transformation into a constitutional monarchy. For purposes of ultimate emergencies it may be found to have no substance at all.
By the time the was signed in 1919, officially ending the Great War, more than 11 million soldiers and 7 million civilians were dead. Italy's interests had long been more or less divorced from those of the Triple Alliance; as early as 1902 a Franco-Italian accord on North Africa had been reached in a secret treaty. The Secret Treaties of Austria-Hungary, 1879—1914 v2 1921 , the most thorough history of the Triple Alliance, with text of major documents. Triple Alliance, secret agreement between , , and formed in May 1882 and renewed periodically until. Italy was in fact a rival of Austria-Hungary in the Balkans and particularly for control of the Adriatic; moreover, there remained unsettled territorial problems see.
France's alliance with Russia brought it into the fight immediately. The understanding between the three powers, supplemented by agreements with and , was a powerful counterweight to the of , , and. Schmitt, The Coming of the War, 1914 1930, repr. This however, led the other Great Powers feeling threatened about the strength of the Triple Alliance. Germany and Austria-Hungary were already allies by 1879 when, worried about a threat from Russia, they formed the Dual Alliance.
The three countries agreed to support each other if attacked by either or. During World War I, the Triple Alliance consisted of three majorEuropean nations: Great Britain, France, and Imperial Russia. In the , Prussia forced France to cede to the new. The British government knew it had a moral obligation to France. In case Italy, without direct provocation on her part, should be attacked by France for any reason whatsoever, the two other Contracting Parties shall be bound to lend help and assistance with all their forces to the Party attacked.
The Triple Alliance, however, turned diplomatic history into new channels. Germany would sign a treaty and take all responsibility of war and damage. Three years later, Britain signed a similar agreement with Russia. Following parallel negotiation with both Triple Alliance, aimed to keep Italy neutral, and the , aimed to make Italy enter the conflict, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary. Russia was rivals with Austria-Hungarybecause they both wanted to extend their influence into theBalkans. Germany and Austria-Hungary wanted to take over Paris France, in order for France to savage the capital of the city, French Soldiers would lead Germany away and they would soon station on the outside of Germany.
To counter its enemies militarily and politically, Russia sought to revive the. In 1898 Théophile took control of French foreign policy; he was opposed to Germany and hoped for a rapprochement with Great Britain, his object being the isolation of Germany. No bad deed went unpunished. The British, having more shipyards and more money to spend on their navy because they spent comparatively less on their army, kept a solid lead. The British feared the A-H and Italian fleets would attack Egypt and the Suez Canal. It was created in 1882 under a treaty for mutual defense in which each of the three countries agreed to join forces if any one of them was attacked by another country the gre … atest concern was an attack by France or Russia. Germany and Austria-Hungary had some natural reasons for forming an alliance.
This prediction was strengthened by Italy's of , bringing it into conflict with the German-backed Ottoman Empire. Besides the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente, other alliances and agreements were being formed. The trouble between Austria and Serbia reached a peak after the assassination of Archduke in 1914, and resulted. When the treaty was renewed in February 1887, Italy gained an empty promise of German support of Italian colonial ambitions in North Africa in return for Italy's continued friendship. The situation in the Balkans, especially in the wake of the and the 1878 , which made Russia feel cheated of its gains made in the , prevented the League from being renewed in 1887. As late as 1911 , chief of the Austrian general staff, was advocating a military preemptive strike against Austria's supposed Italian ally.
This prevented an Austrian and Russian alliance. Meanwhile, the fall of Bismarck, after the accession of to the throne of the German Empire, was followed by the appearance of more adventurous foreign policies. Meanwhile, Germany's new elected leaders proved incompetent at maintaining Bismarck's alliances, and the nation soon found itself surrounded by hostile powers. That heralded the end of British and was partly a response to growing German antagonism, as expressed in the expansion of the Imperial Navy to become a battle fleet that could threaten the supremacy of the British. Mutual suspicions led to reinforcement of the frontier and speculation in the press about a war between the two countries into the first decade of the twentieth century.
Most of the British did not want to get involved; but as a result of the entente, France had concentrated her fleet in the Mediterranean, leaving her entire Atlantic coast unprotected, depending on the British fleet to protect it. Formation of the In 1871 two new major states of Europe had been formed—the German Empire and the kingdom of Italy. Moreover, Italy would switch sides and join the Triple Entente. Triple Alliance They knew that if Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy acted together, they would be able to defeat each of the countries. In turn, Italy would assist Germany if attacked by France. Diplomacy before the Russian Revolution: Britain, Russia, and the Old Diplomacy, 1894—1917 2000.
The Triple Entente fought the Triple Alliance, although Italy soon switched sides. Once Bismarck was voted out of power, his carefully crafted foreign policy began to crumble. In the years before , many distinguished military analysts predicted that Italy would attack its supposed ally in the event of a large scale conflict. The German influence on Austria-Hungary formed a strong bond between the two countries. Italy and Austria-Hungary did not overcome their basic conflict of interest in that region despite the treaty. In turn, prominent French and British journalists, academics and parliamentarians found the reactionary tsarist regime distasteful. By 1900, Britain had left its policy of isolationism and became allies with Japan.