Structural Ambiguity The presence of two or more possible meanings for one single sentence or a sequence of words. However, this seems to be an insufficient basis for the claim of ambiguity. For each of these examples, it is meaningful to ask which reading is to be preferred, between Subject+Verb+Object and Subject-with-Adjective+Pronominal-Object+Verb. Note the formulation of the Verb Phrase rule as you gave it: Adverb Verb Prepositional Phrase Noun Phrase Clearly, and as you say, the parentheses enclose optional elements—which is to say, at a minimum, that the number of each such element in the Verb Phrase may vary between zero and one. However, it would normally be clear in a given context which of the two , 'port 1' 'harbor' or 'port 2' 'kind of fortified wine' , is being used—and also which sense of the verb 'pass' is intended. All these other phenomena illustrate something distinct from multiplicity of linguistic meaning. One test is having two unrelated antonyms, as with 'hard', which has both 'soft' and 'easy' as opposites.
There are two types of ambiguity, lexical and structural. The nouns 'bank' and 'suit' are clear examples, and so are the verbs 'bank' and 'file'. Old men and women went to the church, does it mean old men and women or old men and women Attachment ambiguity: This occurs when a phrase can fit different points in a parse tree thus creating ambiguous meanings The man saw the girl with the telescope, it is unsure if man with the telescope saw the girl or the man saw the girl with the telescope Semantic ambiguity: When meaning of words can get ambiguous, then that type of ambiguity is semantic ambiguity. This book will appeal to researchers and academics interested in the structure of the English language, usage, pragmatics, communication, natural language processing, editing, and humor studies as well as those in marketing, advertising, or humor writing. But ambiguity is a fact of linguistic life. Syntax and Semantics 4, New York: Academic Press. But how do we find out? And so on… An abstract level of structural organization in which all the elements determining structural interpretation are represented is called deep structure.
After all, being previously mentioned is just another way of being contextually specified. Structural ambiguity can sometimes lead to some funny interpretations. This book will appeal to researchers and academics interested in the structure of the English language, usage, pragmatics, communication, natural language processing, editing, and humor studies as well as those in marketing, advertising, or humor writing. Although unnoticed ambiguities can create philosophical problems, ambiguity is philosophically important also because philosophers often make spurious claims of it. This idea is known as compositionality: meaning is composed from word meanings plus morphosyntactic structures. Homophones could be noticed in the following examples; 1 I ate the fruits 2 The meeting will be tomorrow at eight o'clock.
For example, identifying an ambiguity can aid in solving a philosophical problem. These are not cases of linguistic ambiguity but can be confused with it because speakers are often said to be ambiguous. The above examples of ambiguity are each a case of one word with more than one meaning. It can be used to say either that John loves John's mother and Bill loves Bill's mother or that John loves John's mother and Bill loves John's mother. For each successful search about an adjective-verb, verb-noun pair, we thus found one possible subject, or several. This single string of words has two distinct meanings, which arise from two different grammatical ways of combining the words in the sentence. In most cases, no match is found.
It is also concerned to explain the rich and subtle semantic behavior of common and highly flexible words like the verbs 'do' and 'put' and the prepositions 'at', 'in' and 'to'. Terms like 'bald', 'heavy' and 'old' are obvious examples, and their vagueness is explained by the fact that they apply to items on fuzzy regions of a scale. One might argue that the clause 'so does Bill' is unambiguous and may be read unequivocally as saying in the context that Bill does the same thing that John does, and although there are two different possibilities for what counts as doing the same thing, these alternatives are not fixed semantically. Auxiliary Verbs and Clause Types 5. Therefore, there should be further explanation to clarify the meaning. One must conclude that diagramming with such strict rules cannot accurately represent English sentences — or at least, it exposes any ambiguity.
This argument is plausible to the extent that the phenomenon is systematic and general, rather than peculiar to particular words. It would perhaps be suited for a project involving a large number of participants. In doing so he also provides authentic examples to illustrate the concepts he presents. In this sentence: Heike recognized it by its unusual bark. It creates only a defense of ignorance or mistake of fact. And so also with prepositional phrases:. Computational Resolution: The ambiguity could be resolved for a computer parser by specifying in the lexical entry for each item its semantic features.
Everyday terms like 'animal', 'book' and 'car' apply both to types and to instances tokens of those types. To turn those structures into recognizable English, we also need lexical rules that specify which words can be used when we rewrite constituents such as N. This often happens in news headlines, where function words get omitted. Provide details and share your research! In most cases, however, we do not even notice the ambiguity in everyday life. Other examples for words that are spelled the same but have different meanings; Bear an animal , bear carry ; Type to write via keyboard , type kind or sort. Rather, it requires only that the defendant be aware of the relevant aspects of his conduct. Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
This book takes the opposite approach as it focuses on describing the features in the English language that may contribute towards the creation of structural ambiguities, which form the core of some of the best word-plays found in advertising, comedy and marketing. Does Web material truthfully reflect a natural language's possibilities, or a relevant subset of them? The sense of 'weigh' in 'He weighed the package' is derived from its sense in 'The package weighed two pounds'. The source of ambiguity here is the adjective which could be interpreted in two ways: the teacher is from Germany and teaches history; the other one could be interpreted as a teacher who teach the German history in general. Presents and assesses various linguistic tests of ambiguity. I am a studying Natural Language Processing and came across multiple types of ambiguity like lexical, scope, global, attachment and coordination ambiguities. Involved participants: , , , , is defined as words having multiple meanings.