The efficacy of rational-emotive therapy: A quantitative review of the outcome research. One of the strengths of using a scientific approach is that extraneous variables can be controlled and we are therefore more likely to discover causal relationships. This was evidenced in the research by Loftus and Palmer in relation to the effect of leading questions on eye witness. A strength of cognitive neuropsychology is that it allows for downstream effects to be explored, allowing theories to be refuted should initial impairments be present without subsequent deficits. Clinical Psychology Review, 26 1 , 17-31. The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Hans had a fear of castration which led to him having a phobia of horses.
Cognition in this way is most commonly investigated by studying individuals with normal cognition. Rather, they are information which informs the client and practitioner about the nature of an individual's deep pain and woundedness. Then to rate their confidence they could remember more if time was given on a scale of 1-5. Strengths It mostly uses rigorous scientific methods The approach has had many practical applications This area has worked with other areas of psychology to produce the following: social learning theory, social cognition and artificial intelligence Weaknesses It is too simplistic. This was evidenced in the research by Loftus and Palmer in relation to the effect of leading questions on eye witness.
This therapy has been successful in changing irrational thoughts into rational thoughts so that behaviour improves. It does not take into account the view that humans are unique. It can also be defeating for people who have different thought processes and behaviors than normal because of one or more of the factors listed above. Other techniques include aversion therapy, systematic desensitization, token economies, modeling, and contingency management. A controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for non-cardiac chest pain. Then 50% of participants from group 2 and 3 had to choose the correct word.
For example, someone observes 10,000 dogs and finds that they all have flees, then inductively concludes that all dogs have flees. The start of the use of computers allowed psychologists to try to understand the complexities of human cognition by comparing it with something simpler and better understood, i. For example, Palmer and Hollin's study into moral reasoning and decision making behaviours in criminals assumed that the difference between why the control group weren't criminals and the experimental group were was because of cognitive decision making differences. Remember that there is no scope within such area of psychology for personal examination and exploration of emotions, or for troubling issues from a variety of perspectives, which would require a client to turn to a different approach, such as counseling. She never took the time to know who she was ministering to.
As a result, their beliefs begin to change. Cognitive neuropsychology, evolved when the fields of cognitive psychology and neuropsychology realised that patients with brain lesions were valuable in the study of and testing of, theories of normal cognition. It investigates many areas of interest in Psychology that had been neglected by behaviourism; yet, unlike psychoanalysis and humanism, it investigates them using a more rigorous scientific method. For some, this may be considered an unethical approach. However, cognitive psychologists regard it as essential to look at the mental processes of an organism and how these influence behaviour. Ellis believes that it is not the activating event A that causes negative emotional and behavioral consequences C , but rather that a person interpret these events unrealistically and therefore has a irrational belief system B that helps cause the consequences C.
For instance, a study in this area on decision-making and moral reasoning in criminals assumed that the difference between the reason why the control and experimental groups were not composed of criminals was due to the differences in cognitive decision making. Information processing models of cognitive processes such as memory and attention assume that mental processes follow a clear sequence. Therefore, this is a very useful approach with many contributions to psychology and society as a whole. Temporomandibular Disorder pain Turner, J. .
Aside from this, other studies, such as the one by Loftus and Palmer, have also led to questions that have made a great impacted on forensic psychology and eyewitness testimony. Meta-analytic review of marital therapy outcome research. It's ludicrous to think that by reframing this current traumatic event that I can overcome debilitating anxiety issues stemming from childhood and neurological abnormalities. Though the focus of this approach is about the client and his ability to change, some individuals would see it to be too narrow, thus causing them to ignore important issues, such as personal history, family and broader emotional problems. You may be a slow reader or not have experience writing business letters.
Geriatric Anxiety Chambless, Diane L. The behavior part of the therapy involves setting homework for the client to do e. Pain relating to a disease that has no known cause Idiopathic pain Chambless, Diane L. The therapist also failed to offer one. Another strength of this approach is that is has made an important contribution to society. She laughed several times and told me three times about the book she is writing, all in the first visit when I'm pouring out my grief.