November 1999 was an eloquent demonstration of what I have termed cosmopolitanism. Each of these forms has its own semantic register, intellectual tradition, political intentionality and projected horizons. The nature of the world system in transition itself is problematic and the possible order is the order of disorder. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat , vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Cultural Diversity: Cultural diversity reflects in many things like music, art, food, race, etc. The world was further united when the Gregorian calendar was adopted.
Territorial localisms are, for example, those favoured by people who, after centuries of genocide and cultural oppression, have finally reclaimed the right to self-determination within their ancestral territories, with some measure of success. The second mode of production of globalisation in which resistance is organised against globalised localisms and localised globalisms is what I have, with recourse to international law, termed the common inheritance of humanity. The establishment of the International Criminal Court and International Court of Justice also reflects the changing needs of a more global society. The proof of this lies in the diverse responses of the national states to the political pressures currently emerging out of the Washington Consensus. Secondly, the denationalisation of political regimes, reflected in the transition from the concept of government to that of governance, or rather from a model of social and economic regulation based on the central role of the state, to one which is based on partnerships and other forms of association with governmental, para-governmental and non-governmental organisations, in which the state apparatus exercises only coordinating tasks as a. Although the importance of the globalisation of the media is emphasised by all, not everyone draws the same conclusions from this.
Advances in technology have meant that people, companies and nations are no longer restricted by national borders and geographical distance. In more recent comparisons between models and patterns of social inequality in Latin America and East Asia, Evans adds other factors which, in his opinion, may have contributed to the fact that the Asian model of development has produced relatively less inequality than the Brazilian one. In situations where women have been historically repressed or discriminated under a patriarchal division of labour, some features of globalization may have liberating consequences. The question now is to know whether, in addition to this, certain cultural forms have emerged in recent decades which are transnational in origin or whose national origins are relatively unimportant in view of the fact that they circulate throughout the world more or less without roots in any national culture. The consensus of the supremacy of the law and the judicial system is one of the essential components of the new political form of the state and it is also the one which best seeks to bind political globalisation to economic globalisation. This, then, is the profile of hegemonic globalisation, particularly in its economic and political forms.
Economic globalisation and neo-liberalism At the beginning of the eighties, Fröbel, Heinrichs and Kreye 1980 were probably the first to speak of the emergence of a new international division of labour, based on the globalisation of production, which had been accomplished by the multinational companies, gradually converted into central actors in the new world economy. That said, it is worth knowing that, in the last few years, there has been a rise in non-tariff barriers such as import quotas as countries have struggled to achieve real economic growth and as a response to persistent trade and current account deficits. It is on the medium scale that it becomes possible to identify hegemonic global phenomena which, in the one hand, are articulated in multiple forms and under local, national and regional conditions, and, on the other hand, confront local, national and global resistances which may by characterized as anti-hegemonic. Appadurai has come to stress the growing role of the imagination in a social life dominated by globalisation. Companies are moving towards the developing countries to acquire labor force.
Whilst the latter is based on the accumulation of capital, obtained throughout the world, the global economy is able to function as a unit in real time and on a planetary scale 1996: 92. The top supplying countries are China Mainland , Egypt, and Canada, which supply 77%, 15%, and 1% of process of globalization respectively. Similarly, Appadurai states that the cultural is the arena of differences, contrasts and comparisons 1997: 12. Kennedy, Paul 1993 , Preparing for the Twenty-First Century. Focusing on the urban impact of economic globalisation, Saskia Sassen detects profound changes in the geography, composition and institutional structure of the global economy Sassen, 1994: 10. Although apparently monolithic, this process combines highly differentiated situations and conditions and, because of this, cannot be analysed independently of the power relations which respond to the different forms of temporal and spatial mobility.
The issue is to determine whether what is termed globalisation should not be more correctly termed Westernisation or Americanisation Ritzer, 1995 , since the values, cultural artifacts and universal symbols which are globalised are Western and, often, specifically North American, whether individualism, political democracy, economic rationality, utilitarianism, the supremacy of law, the cinema, advertising, television, the Internet etc. Hence the weak state tends also to be a minimal state. Cultural phenomena are only of interest in so far as they transform themselves into merchandise which can then follow the trail of economic globalisation. And by accomplishing those goals, the Philippines should be able to reduce the poverty level as well as increase labor force for job opportunities for those that are in need for a living. Yet, although false, it predominates. Appadurai, Arjun 1997 , Modernity at Large. The question is to determine whether the normative and cultural dimensions of the process of globalisation play a primary or a secondary role.
Many of these initiatives or proposals are based on the idea that culture, community and the economy are incorporated and rooted in concrete geographical locations that require constant vigilance and protection. It has also resulted in an expansion of the market, with countries being able to trade with any nation at any time. However, the direction which is finally imposed is decisive, not only in defining the practical outlines of the conflict, but also its nature and its results. In these circumstances, it is not surprising that in recent years various discourses on globalisation have emerged. Mobility: The characteristic of globalization given more mobility and less transport costs Because of this there is more competition and more dynamism. It does, however, stress the promotion of local social initiatives. Writing code that functions equally well in any of the supported locales.
In the light of the characterisation of the world system in transition which I have proposed above, cosmopolitanism and the common inheritance of humanity constitute anti-hegemonic globalisation by the extent to which they fight to transform unequal exchanges into exchanges of shared authority. Given that these changes take place at the end of a relatively lengthy period of state intervention in social and economic life notwithstanding considerable differences within the world system , the retraction of the state can only be achieved through strong state intervention. Inequalities such as these show how far we are from a truly global information society. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Globalisation is seen from the point of view of the core countries, taking into account their experiences.
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa 1998b , Reinventar a Democracia. On the contrary, they are the expression and the result of struggles engaged within the social space conventionally known as globalisation which, in reality, is constructed through four modes of production. For Friedman , cultural and ethnic fragmentation on the one hand and modernist homogeneity on the other, are not two opposing perspectives of what is taking place, but rather two trends which both constitute global reality Featherstone, 1990: 311. In third place, contrary to what may be understood from the framework drawn up by Castells, the convergence of countries in the global economy is as significant as their divergence and this is particularly obvious in the core countries Drache, 1999: 15. The global capitalist practices are the practices of the economic agents whose spatial-temporal unit for real or potential action is the planet itself.