The second was the foundation of fractional reserve banking that enabled banks to lend substantially more than the amount of deposits they carried on their books. He takes the position that our moral assessment of a person will be affected by good consequences which could not have been foreseen. Clearly there is something inspiring about this instance of vicarious punishment to Christians and others when they reflect upon Jesus' death. David Cooper 1968 concludes that these reactive attitudes directed at collectives cannot be analyzed in terms of individual blame, and that this use of language supports the morally responsible status of collectives. Lewis thinks his proposal would have defensive, expressive, and deterrent values. To illustrate the unjustness of this approach, Hasnas points out that the Nazis operated on this principle in occupied France during the Second World War, by punishing innocent members of communities where sabotage was occurring to deter acts of resistance. Leaders in the group should normally bear more responsibility than followers.
Engaging in disagreements of this sort is to engage in politics itself. I agree with French that some groups exhibit intentionality, rationality, and the capacity to alter their behavior in light of reasons. He asserts that both the conscious and pre-reflective attitudes of individuals are profoundly affected by their membership in groups and communities. Peter French's 1984 distinction between aggregate collectivities and conglomerates is useful in understanding some important differences between groups. He explored, by way of contrast with the overriding emphasis on misconduct and punishment in earlier presentations, situations where there are positive outcomes, such as pharmaceutical companies providing access to essential medicines. This paper is about the corporation as criminal defendant.
Provide benefits to short term workers C. Public and private bureaucracies are human inventions justified by their success in meeting human needs better than alternative modes of human organization. She rejected French's earlier position on corporate metaphysical personhood. This allows them to avoid transparency, we should demand transparency and this pressure comes from an outside source. For Lukes: The point, in other words, of locating power is to fix responsibility for consequences held to flow from the action, or inaction, of certain specifiable agents. Held disagrees with May that a corporation's intentions are grounded in the intentions of individual members and maintains that corporations have intentions and interests of their own.
It is, in his argument, an agency of great potential danger and of great potential benefit, one in terms od which we can address every ethical problem of business. In an increasingly bureaucratized world, there are diminished possibilities for the spontaneous, informal, and intimate human interactions essential to civil society, that social space which is considered a buffer between big government and big corporations. Erasmus had published a tract De libero arbitrio On Free Will in 1524 and Luther published his riposte De Servo Arbitrio On the bondage of the Will in 1525. These conditions do not hold for all collectives e. Drawing on Gadamer's hermeneutic of trust, I propose that this historical realisation and an ensuing balanced debate can enable much needed dialogue between philosophy, religion and the social sciences. Teemu Ruskola, Professor of Law at Emory Law, noted how treatment of the question of moral responsibility of firms is coloured by cultural differences in theories of the firm, distinguishing between Western liberal views, state socialism, and Chinese Confucianism. She finds merit in French's explanation of the way internal decision structures facilitate corporate actions, and agrees that a corporation's intentions cannot be reduced to the intentions of any or all of the corporation's members.
They are matters of very real and growing concern to people living in every country on the planet. The ontological and moral status of collective entities has been the object of an enduring debate in philosophy, social sciences, law and applied ethics. In this article we plead for reconsidering the important role of individual morality and replacing it into the systematic context of business ethics. This view valorizes the individual as independent and autonomous, embodying two of the central values of the modern Western world. It is stipulated that all members of a group drink alcohol to impairment and afterwards, drive their vehicles anyway.
In Ladd's analysis, moral language can be incorporated into a group's operating procedures. The post-financial crisis world is becoming a more business-critical one. Many scholars believe that only humans can be moral agents, and therefore business needs to create models that foster greater receptivity to others through ethical dialog. Degree judgments of blame Risser 1978, 1996 are also possible at both a group and an individual level. French explores two theories about corporate diachronic identity, viz. Kant moved the idea of freedom to the center of his philosophy, arguing that from a reflection on the nature of human freedom a self- critical assessment of its morally appropriate use could be gleaned.
Hence every corporation creates an image not to be confused with its public image or general policy, what G. Collective responsibility is not as widely accepted a notion as individual moral responsibility, but its emphasis on the structure of organizations suggests a promising approach to organizational punishment after a judgment of responsibility is made. Held is doubtful that French's Hester Prynne sanction can be effective and rejects the idea that corporations can feel shame. In one of her examples three pedestrians come upon a man who has been injured and is trapped in a collapsed building. The main appeal of methodological individualism is ideological.
The analysis presents evidence of the lack of regard in the literature for the human dimension, with the notable exception of the work of Andrew Van de Ven and his collaborators. Collective Moral Responsibility Focusing on groups through the lens of collective moral responsibility has broadened the scope of moral philosophy. A happy, morally virtuous life can end with a death that is drawn-out and painful. Now 1995 French has redeveloped his position through 380 pages in Corporate Ethics, probably the most challenging and original Business Ethics textbook yet to appear. Which of these is not suggested in the article? An account of the theoretical underpinnings of the encounter between the human rights normative discourse and the business full of conceptual pitfalls. A central aspect of this nexus is the hiring of managers and directors to maximize their financial investments. For this reason, we inform you that the data collected via the form above is processed electronically for the purpose s specified in this form and will not be used outside this framework.
Only when they are put together does something become a 'shadow', a 'high-light', a concave or convex monochromatic surface', etc. Drawing on multiple examples, Ian Maitland, Professor of Strategic Management and Entrepreneurship at the University of Minnesota, also asserted that the idea of corporate moral agency can give rise to morally unacceptable outcomes, including the possibility of the officers of a firm being unaccountable for its actions. For Bratman, shared intentions of a group and shared framework policies entailing commitment to action are sufficient conditions for group intention. His earlier writings tended to emphasize similarities between corporate and human agents, but more recently he has focused on the unique features of corporations and recognizes the tremendous power they wield. Fortunate and unfortunate occurrences unfold, but to a large degree luck is a concept embraced by those who often see the way their lives unfold in superstitious terms. He adds: Moreover, since our ideas about power and responsibility are so intimately related, disagreements about the appropriate criteria for holding collectives responsible for consequences will be reflected in disputes about the meaning of 'power' Connolly 1974, p.
It is designed to address the substantial disparity between the lenient sentences given to people for serious, wholehearted murder attempts that fail and the sentence one receives for a successful murder. Wittgenstein offers a very useful observation in Remarks on Colour that is an analogy for the shortcomings of methodological individualism: 53. People make decisions based on how it affects themselves. What each of us may consider lucky or unlucky depends on what goals we are pursuing, the vagaries of the world, our interactions with others, and many other factors. On one hand, corporations are obviously not living things, and thus one could say that the personification of inanimate objects is not really possible outside the realm of poetry. How can we consider a corporation a moral agent then? Such arrangements run counter to Western liberal ideals of individual responsibility and autonomy.