Since all Chinese women were held in extreme submission by Chinese men, some immigration officials did not accept the Chinese culture which considered the ownership and sexual exploitation of women to be a norm and they were unable to distinguish between free women and exploited women. What are you going to the United States for? He would ask the women the same questions in an effort to catch liars, but if the women were approved they were then allowed to board the steamer to America. Grant called for curbs on two outgrowths of the Chinese immigration: forced labor and prostitution. In December 1874, President Ulysses S. This fear became concentrated on Chinese women, because some white Americans believed that germs and disease could most easily be transmitted to white men through sexual labor of Chinese prostitutes. Constitutional challenge Main page: The Supreme Court, in a 8—1 decision, declared the act unconstitutional in the Civil Rights Cases on October 15, 1883. Once on board the ship, the women were questioned again.
Grant on March 1, 1875. Therefore, Chinese were unable to create families within the U. Are you married or single? States would no longer play a role in the official administration of immigration affairs. A record-number seven African-American Representatives carried debate in favor of the bill, offering personal accounts of discrimination on railroads and in restaurants. It also excluded Chinese nationals from eligibility for United States citizenship. Do you go to the United States for the purposes of prostitution? Most Chinese women that immigrated to the U.
In 1882 alone, during the few months before the enactment of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the beginning of its enforcement, 39,579 Chinese entered the U. Do you intend to live a virtuous life in the United States?. Page, a Republican, sponsored the immigration legislation enacted on March 3, 1875. What is to be your occupation there? These laws were renewed twice and remained in effect until they were. On the other hand, the ban on female Asian immigrants was heavily enforced and proved to be a barrier for all Asian women trying to immigrate, especially Chinese.
As such, it would have enormous consequences for future immigration legislation. Male-laborers were central to the anti-Chinese movement, so one might expect lawmakers to focus on excluding men from immigration, but instead they concentrated on women in order to protect the American system of monogamous marriages. The bill was proposed by Senator Sumner and co-sponsored by Benjamin F. Grant Signeddate: March 3, 1875 The Page Act of 1875 Sect. Do you wish of your own free and voluntary will to go to the United States? Photographs were used as a means to identify the Chinese women through each stage of the examination process in order to ensure that unqualified women would not be substituted for a woman who was properly questioned at any point in time. Therefore, the number of immigrants majority male entering the U.
Are you a virtuous woman? In 1882 alone, during the few months before the enactment of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the beginning of its enforcement, 39,579 Chinese entered the U. The third section stated that any woman transported to the United States for the purpose of prostitution was forbidden and any contract made prior to the transportation would be voided and a fine and jail time sentenced. Are you married or single? Although the Chinese were usually considered economic assets and good residents, their growing numbers alarmed many people living in the West. The , led by demagogue Denis Kearney led the push to have Chinese workers excluded from California. Bailey, was put in charge of regulating which Chinese women were actual wives of laborers, allowed to travel to the United States, as opposed to prostitutes. In 1875, Congress passed the Page Law, which served to reduce immigration of women fromAsia. Have you engaged in prostitution in either of the above places? President Grant reaffirmed the United States bearing regarding the immigration of women originating from the.
In 1882 alone, during the few months before the enactment of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the beginning of its enforcement, 39,579 Chinese entered the U. Some Chinese men had a wife as well as a concubine, usually a woman obtained through purchase and recognized as a legal member of the family. On this date, the House passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875 by a vote of 162 to 99. Several years later, the ruled in 1883 that sections of the act were. The second section stated that any citizen of the United States whotried to transport any Chinese, Japanese or from any of the Asian countries without their consent would be punished with a fine and jail time.
The Court held the within the prohibits by the state and local government, but it does not give the federal government the power to prohibit discrimination by private individuals and organizations. This act was the first comprehensive immigration law to deal with federal oversight and categories of exclusion. Text courtesy of Betty Yan. Some Chinese men had a wife as well as a concubine, usually a woman obtained through purchase and recognized as a legal member of the family. In turn, scholars have argued, politicians courted American laborers with racist legislation like the Chinese Exclusion Act. Photographs were used as a means to identify the Chinese women through each stage of the examination process in order to ensure that unqualified women would not be substituted for a woman who was properly questioned at any point in time.
Mosby's grant of less than 200 women to be sent to the U. In addition, the day before a ship sailed to America, Chinese women reported to the American consul for a series of questioning which included the following questions: Have you entered into contract or agreement with any person or persons whomsoever, for a term of service, within the United States for lewd and immoral purposes? Immigration Immigration Dressed for a formal visit, Chinatown, San Francisco. Most Chinese women that immigrated to the U. The declaration was then sent to the Tung Wah Hospital Committee who would do a careful examination and then report back to Bailey about the character of each woman. As to oversight, the law gave power over immigration enforcement to the secretary of the treasury, who was already responsible for overseeing customs in U. Some Chinese men had a wife as well as a concubine, usually a woman obtained through purchase and recognized as a legal member of the family. These include the Civil Rights Act of 1866, the four Reconstruction Acts of 1867 and 1868, the three Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871, and the three adopted between 1865 and 1870.
What is to be your occupation there? That the importation into the United States of women for the purposes of prostitution is hereby forbidden; and all contracts and agreements in relation thereto, made in advance or in pursuance of illegal importation and purposes, are hereby declared void; and whoever shall knowingly and willfully hold, or attempt to hold, any woman to such purposes, in pursuance of such illegal importation and contract or agreement, shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, on conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned not exceeding five years and pay a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars. Foreigners denied entry were returned to their starting points at the expense of the ship owners. Civil Rights Act of 1875, U. Even though these laws were passed during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, some of the views they supported remained entrenched well into the late twentieth century. The assumed that Chinese men were forced to work under long-term service contracts, when in reality immigrants to America were not , but borrowed money from brokers for their trip and paid the money back plus interest through work at their first job. As a result, from 1875-1882 at least one hundred and possibly several hundred women were returned to China.