Examples of given by this route include nitroglycerin, isoprenaline and oxytocin. Since they are cheaper,some medical facilities tends to go with them compared to localworkforce advantages:. Sublingual administration involves placing a drug under your tongue to dissolve and absorb into your blood through the tissue there. Other disadvantages with parenteral routes are patient discomfort, the need for sterile conditions, and potential risks to health care practitioners from blood-borne pathogens. Advantages of parenteral drug administration: 1. Usage of depends on its physical properties, chemical properties, speed of action, need and bypass effect.
It is held with nozzle against the skin. The should be lipid soluble and small. This could lead to the message being conveyed in a less effective way or lapses in tact. But the aqueous can be absorbed faster than depot form. Also, because it is absorbed slowly, this route is not fast acting.
For small therapeutic molecules, various routes for drug administration are parenteral intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous , oral, nasal, ocular, transmucosal buccal, vaginal, and rectal , and transdermal. Avoidance of the gastrointestinal tract environmental conditions chemical and enzymatic degradation of drugs and the hepatic first pass metabolism. The role of device design and development in defining and driving emerging opportunities in this area cannot be overstated. If a verbal message is passed on from person to person, the content can become distorted from the original message. Disadvantage of Parenteral Administered 1. Due to large absorption surface and high vascularization, rapid absorption and fast onset of action is expected. Because the uptake of viral antigen into the body is slower in intranasal vaccination, allergic reactions are less likely to happen.
A list of commonly used routes of drug administration can be found below, along with useful information about dosage and abbreviations. For emergency: When the drug has to start acting immediately in case of emergecy this is best. They are generally only effective against respiratory pathogens. Here the drug is given from routes other than oral i. It can be very difficult to determine the correct dosage of medication when treating many illnesses and many factors can affect your required dosagesuch as your age and physical state, etc.
Disadvantages of Oral Communication -Unrepeatable - Information retention is difficult, it is harder to store or retrieve. Caution must be used with drugs or drug combinations with the propensity to form precipitates. Penetration to the brain through the olfactory region may be caused by nasally administered substances, including toxins and attenuated microorganisms. This type of administration can be useful for those who find it difficult to swallow, or keep down medication, for example, people with vomiting condition. . They might keep visiting iit over and over or a lot of them might mention it to their friends and relatives. I have had several as my regular clients and they seemto find work fairly easily too.
They are generally only effective against respiratory pathogens. Drug Administration on Dosage and Time Dosage To correctly determine how much of a medication you should be taken, you should always seek advice from a medical professional. Ex: Insulin in diabetic patients. Cons: Very slow rate of absorption. Parenteral route: As the name indicates, here are drugs are given in routes other that intestine.
The drug is released slowly over a period of few months. Avirulent intranasal vaccines could be given via the nostrils using special applicators. They can be more rapid than an autoclave and higher temperatures can be reached compared to other means. Subcutaneous: Here drug is injected just below the skin. The rate of drug absorption is slower than that from intramuscular injection. This route is mostly used in old patients. Intraosseous: The injection is done directly into the bone marrow.
Disadvantage of written communication is that you may not have immediate response or feedback. Tarundeep Singh +919818532035 Oral tradition, while an important part of many cultures, is less reliable than the written word. Nonirritant preparations should be used with strict aseptic technique. The invading viruses will not get the opportunity to damage many cells in this case. Heat … Sterilization is divided in two categories:. Because the medication absorbs quickly, these types of administration can be important during emergencies when you need the drug to work right away, such as during a heart attack.