We shall find that the God of Israel is among us, when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies, when He shall make us a praise and glory, that men shall say of succeeding plantations, the Lord make it like that of New England. Hence it was that in the primitive Church they sold all, had all things in common, neither did any man say that which he possessed was his own. For we are setting out upon a voyage in 1961 no less hazardous than that undertaken by the Arabella sic in 1630. Winthrop chooses words that he knows will appeal to his audience and encourage these actions. This duty of mercy is exercised in the kinds: giving, lending and forgiving of a debt. So Phoebe and others are called the servants of the church. What rule shall a man observe in giving in respect of the measure? What rule shall a man observe in giueving in respect of the measure? They are twofold, a conformity with the worke and end wee aime at.
Background John Winthrop 1588-1649 was governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony - a group of entrepreneurs who left Europe in search of trade opportunities in the New World. First of all, true Christians are of one body in Christ, 1 Cor. Since Winthrop anticipates that some people may have objections when it comes to his argument, he writes the next section of his sermon as a series of questions and answers. In the State of wedlock there be many comforts to learn out of the troubles of that condition; but let such as have tried the most, say if there be any sweetness in that condition comparable to the exercise of mutual love. In this brief discourse, which is believed to have been delivered as a lecture to the group of colonists about to depart for the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop 1588-1649 lays out a vision for building a godly commonwealth.
All the partes of this body being thus vnited are made soe contiguous in a speciall relation as they must needes partake of each other's strength and infirmity; joy and sorrowe, weale and woe. I think John Winthrop was rather a pro, especially in his own time. Hearing a sermon within a community of like-minded people can be a powerful experience. The first is that they are subject to the moathe, the rust, the theife. Now the only way to avoid this shipwreck, and to provide for our posterity, is to follow the counsel of Micah, to do justly, to love mercy, to walk humbly with our God.
All individuals since his Fall manifest the same sin. Secondly, in the regenerate in exercising His graces in them, as in the great ones, their love, mercy, gentleness, temperance, etc. We love to imagine the occasion when he personally spoke this oration to some large portion of the Winthrop fleet passengers during or just before their passage. So shall we keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace, the Lord will be our God and delight to dwell among us, as His own people and will command a blessing upon us in all our ways, so that we shall see much more of His wisdom, power, goodness, and truth then formerly we have been acquainted with. This editor has corrected the chapter and verse citations to correspond to the King James text, assuming that the modern reader will wish to conveniently refer to that most popular English version of the Bible, as the Governor lays out his argument for charity and decent human behavior in the community. During American's antebellum period, citizens struggled to define themselves in a rapidly changing world. Like most members of the Colony, Winthrop was a Puritan.
So are all people the same spirit in Puritan public life. Does Winthrop emphasize one component over the others? Let him lay aside as God hath blessed him. Which one seems preferable to you? Secondly, the labor of the mouth is accompanied with such pleasure and content as far exceeds the pains it takes. Simile simili gaudet, or like will to like; for as of things which are turned with disaffection to eache other, the ground of it is from a dissimilitude or ariseing from the contrary or different nature of the things themselves; for the ground of loue is an apprehension of some resemblance in the things loued to that which affects it. Secondly for the work we have in hand.
We must delight in each other; make others conditions our own; rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together, always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work, as members of the same body. This solution in fact was moving to the New World. Wee must delight in eache other; make other's conditions our oune; rejoice together, mourne together, labour and suffer together, allwayes haueving before our eyes our commission and community in the worke, as members of the same body. The mouth is at all the pains to receive and mince the food which serves for the nourishment of all the other parts of the body; yet it hath no cause to complain; for first the other parts send back, by several passages, a due proportion of the same nourishment, in a better form for the strengthening and comforting the mouth. Winthrop illustrates this notion by describing the love of a mother for her child. It never gives, but it always receives with advantage: First in regard that among the members of the same body, love and affection are reciprocal in a most equal and sweet kind of commerce.
There is no body but consists of parts and that which knits these parts together, gives the body its perfection, because it makes each part so contiguous to others as thereby they do mutually participate with each other, both in strength and infirmity, in pleasure and pain. The Lord hath given us leave to drawe our own articles. He implies that a move now is the best way to begin purification. In fact the very idea of Calvinist-style predestination now seems positively unAmerican! Their whole lives were changing dramatically and Winthrop was urging them to be strong in the Lord. The third consideration is concerning the exercise of this loue, which is twofold, inward or outward. Winthrops intent was to prepare the people for planting a new society in a perilous environment, but his practical wisdom is timeless. Now Winthrop turns to the main point of his discourse: how he wants the other members of his colonizing party to apply these principles of love and mercy.
Do good to all, especially to the household of faith. In the 1980s, the city upon a hill was employed by diverse speakers such as Ronald Reagan and Mario Cuomo. Winthrop quotes from the Bible many times during his speech, and makes biblical allusions, his allusions always points to rise up the Puritan's struggle and to escape oppression. If the time and occasion be ordinary, he is to give out of his abundance. To insist a little on this conclusion being the product of all the former, the truth hereof will appear both by precept and pattern. And if there had to be city walls, the walls had doors and the doors were open to anyone with the will and the heart to get here.