چرا اروس و غریزه مرگ کشنده هستند:؟ برای آنکه برای ارضا شدنی تقلا می کنند که فرهنگ نمی تواند آن را اعطا کند. إنما يجب أن تكون مرؤسة من قبل العمل المنظم في فترات الراحة المتقطعة حيث الإنظباط المقترن بإعادة الإنتاج الواحد مرده في ذلك قانون الأمر الإجتماعي. He noted that Eros and Civilization has often been compared to Life Against Death, but suggested that it was less elegantly written. His mother was born Gertrud Kreslawsky and his father was a well-off businessman, Carl Marcuse. We cannot exact violence on anybody we want but we leave that to the government , we cannot take what we want we accept the laws of property , and we cannot sleep with just whoever we desire especially not in our families.
A form of ideology is put in place where the oppressed identifies with the oppressor. إن أطروحة سيغموند فرويد ، التي تزعم أن الحضارة تتأسس عل خضوع للغرائز الإنسانية تبدو بوجه عام صائبة. Dalam konteks perspektif ini, dunia mengalami titik nadir perjuangan Eros. As well as this, Marcuse spends the final chapter obliterating the revisionist NeoFreudians, focusing on Horney, Fromm Marcuse's interlocutor at the Frankfurt School and Sullivan a figure who still holds sway in the modern psychoanalytic schools. Spread of guerilla warfare: rebels frightful existence is in total need of liberation. Theology and philosophy today compete with each other in celebrating death as an existential category: perverting a biological fact into an ontological essence, they bestow transcendental blessing on the guilt of mankind which they help to perpetuate -- they betray the promise of utopia. In the capitalist system, the worker is used as an object for the sake of production while not reaping the full benefits of production.
At the end of the day, Marcuse sees that Heidegger avoids the type of analyses that would reveal systems of oppression and domination from which many human beings suffer. He completed his PhD thesis at the in 1922 on the German after which he moved back to Berlin, where he worked in publishing. He was married to Sophie Wertheim 1924—1951 , Inge Neumann 1955—1973 , and Erica Sherover 1976—1979. The fact that the reality principle has to be re-established continually in the development of man indicates that its triumph over the pleasure principle is never complete and never secure. Hence, the pleasure principle reverts, turns inward, is repressed.
The primal father, as the archetype of domination, initiates the chain reaction of enslavement, rebellion, and reinforced domination which marks the history of civilization. Combine this with the Eroticization of society where one frees the libido from non-repressive civilization, and you have the nightmare which is modern art. Oleh karena itu kemudian, dengan menyandarkan pada aspek tersebut, psikoanalisis individunya Freud juga berbentuk psikologi sosial. Their destructive force derives from the fact that they strive for a gratification which culture cannot grant: gratification as such and as an end in itself, at any moment. This entire book is structured as a dialectical essay.
It is here where Marcuse, relying on his distinction between basic and surplus repression goes beyond Freud. According to Freud, the history of man is the history of his repression. Technology, as a mode of production, as the totality of instruments, devices and contrivances which characterize the machine age is thus at the same time a mode of organization and perpetuating or changing social relationships, a manifestation of prevalent thought and behavior patterns, an instrument for control and domination. It is not a simple process. We all know that advertising and ideology can change what we really want.
Dan masih tetap sama saja, kesimpulannya adalah kepenuhan dan orisinalitas manusia sama dengan gagasan dan pengetahuan yang absolut. Namun bukan kematian itu sendiri. اما اصل واقعیت اصل لذت را عزل نمی کند بلکه آن را جرح و تعدیل می کند. Hal inilah yang kemudian menjadikan psikoanalisis-awal dan kedua aliran neo-revisionisnya menjadi bertentangan. These particular features come with specific social interpretations which affect Dasein's life's prospects. Here Marcuse shows how terms, ideas, or concepts that have their origin in struggles for liberation can be co-opted and used to legitimate oppression. As Marcuse saw it, there is a form of ideology that serves domination and creates the conditions for liberation at the same time.
However, the entire book provides a thorough understanding of how Freudian theory matters to a materialist and emancipatory politics in general and to Marcuse's project in particular. Revolution and social change demands a space for thought and action that make resistance to the status quo possible. من ثمة يوضع سؤال المعرفة هاهنا حول مصالح الحضارة في تعويض المعاناة المصحوبة على الفرد دوما والتي غالبا ما لا تأخذ هاته المسألة على محمل الجد. It received a joint discussion from Arnold L. Kaum-muda sejatinya harus menyadari bahwa ini adalah pertaruhan hidup, bernafaskan perjuangan demi eros dan merupakan perjuangan politis.
Evans identified Eros and Civilization as an influence on 1960s activists and young people. According to Marcuse, the authority figure is no longer needed. Its truth value lies in the specific function of memory to preserve promises and potentialities which are betrayed and even outlawed by the mature, civilized individual, but which had once been fulfilled in his dim past and which are never entirely forgotten. Instead, it represents an alien or critical space within social reality. It is as if feminism is lurking in the background but Marcuse cannot get himself to really acknowledge it. It helped shape the subcultures of the 1960s and influenced the movement, and with other books on Freud, such as the classicist 's 1959 and the philosopher 's 1965 , placed Freud at the center of moral and philosophical inquiry.