Even allowing for a 300 year recovery, by Charlemagne's time, Europe's population was only 30 million including the influx of Germans. At the same time, peasants were still the most illiterate, most powerless, and poorest social class. A great number of ordinary farmers were converted to plantation workers working for the gentries. On committing the same crime, different punishments were handed down to different classes of people. Most Gentry owned land, which was where most of their income came from.
It was a step toward creating a unified state by combining various localities into counties, which were then organized into prefectures under direct supervision of the court. Specifically, the four classes of people by the descending order were Mongolian people, Semu people, Han people in the northern areas of China and Southerners people of the former Northern Song Dynasty 1127 - 1279. Although Qin attempted to obtain a foothold in the central heartland along the Huang He, it was blocked by the territories of Jin. They and their families belong to Guan Hu Gentries. Religion The religion in ancient Rome was much more extensive than the Han religion.
When the Jin collapsed into civil war, the barbarians rose up in revolt. The nature of war had already changed by the late Chunqiu period, as the nobility had given way to professional warriors and mercenaries. The period of urbanization was also a time of assimilation. Coinage was issued in large amounts; however, since China lacked silver, the basic issue were bronze coins along with the rare but more valuable silver coins. Fourth, the Mongolian people adopted a tight control towards the Han people and Southerners.
Engineering Roman Alcántara Bridge, Spain, build of concrete with stone facing As with the vault and the dome, the Romans were first to fully realize the potential of arches, for forming interior spaces and building structures. From these cities and towns orders were issued, and to them the resources of the countryside were sent. The lack of a budgetary system and restraints on issuing currency caused the devaluation of the currency, wreaking havoc on the Roman economy; By the fifth century, the Roman economy had collapsed and large areas were depopulated. The Roman production of copper, the basis for bronze and brass alloys, remained unsurpassed again until the Industrial Revolution. In comparison with other commoners, craftsmen were treated more fairly since the Mongols deemed the skills of making weapons necessary for their conquest of the world. During the Chunqiu period these parallel processes drastically reduced the numbers of the nobility.
The policy divided commoners according to their occupation. During their reign, the Mongols converted a large amount of rice fields into pastures because agriculture was foreign to them. One of his most influential reforms was that of standardizing local administration. This gave the Chinese an advantage because their goods were in high demand in the Roman cities, while Roman glassware was exported to China. As late as the 2nd century bce, Han scholars were still attacking the Qin family structure as failing to observe the principle of filial piety, a cardinal virtue in the Confucian moral code.
Government differed from one another but focused on the same idea, Han China focused in a strictly way of order while Gupta India did as well but a had major turn,such as creating Hinduism; for a way of people to inspired to behave in society in order to have a good karma and live and healthy and good life in the afterlife. Self-sustained farmer accounted for 10% of all farmers while employee farmers of wealthy landlords made up as much as 90%. Farmers and traders using contracts replaced ties of blood as dominant in public and private affairs. This practice of registering population was inherited from the previous Yuan dynasty. The dynasty based on a series of political and economic reforms, was ruled by in succession enjoying peace and prosperity.
Fiefs of substantial size were given to only a few people, usually close relatives of the ruler. The was also maintained and expanded. In trials, the Roman elite was better privileged; they received preferential treatment from imperial courts. The main changes in social structure were military. The Renaissance a thousand years later marked the conscious return to the classical heritage.
The Han used Confucian thought as the primary ideology of the empire, in which the welfare of the people was the concern of the state and the basis of legitimate rule. In order to facilitate trade and promote unity among the people, the Qin dynasty standardized measurements for weights, coins, writing, and even the length of wheels. However, traditional slavery was not a common practice during the Song dynasty. The members of this class were distinguished by being educated, either in the literary tradition or in the military arts. The Shan Hai Jing, a Chinese holy text was edited around the Han dynasty. These two classes were forbidden to possess any weapon or raise any dogs or eagles.
Local administration was entrusted to prefects, who served limited terms. There was also an elaborate code of behaviour in combat. Evidence of this prosperity was shown in an account of the Han official Gan Ying who stated about the Roman Empire: This country produces plenty of gold, silver, and precious jewels, luminous jade, bright moon pearls, fighting cocks, rhinoceroses, coral, yellow amber, opaque glass, whitish chalcedony, 8 red cinnabar, green gemstones, drawn gold-threaded and multi-coloured embroideries, woven gold-threaded net,delicate polychrome silks painted with gold, and asbestos cloth. The system developed in both Jin and Chu was one. Music and entertainment were separated from rituals, with the exception of funeral rites which were taken very seriously. It could also be divided into three subcategories: peasants, workers and merchants.