The beginning of the experiment involved studying how the software worked for this experiment, and trial and error was one of the factors that led to finally learning how to collect the data. Calculations A sample calculation will be performed in this section; therefore, the first set of raw results will be taken into this section with a volume of 0. It is important to expel any air which may be trapped in the pipes of the pressure meter before taking readings. A liquid with a higher flow rate must flow faster because it travels from higher pressure to lower pressure, or in other words, it has a larger pressure gradient than a liquid with a smaller flow rate. When measurement of the water flow rate is complete, the water is emptied back into the main reservoir.
V1 is opened gradually and the piping is allowed to fill with water until all air has been expelled from the system. To perform experiments students record the temperature of water in the hydraulic bench and set the hydraulic bench to pump water through a circuit. Empty the water from the measuring cylinder into the bucket provided 14. The 90 degree standard corner had a head loss in run one, the slowest turbulent flow rate, which was higher than either of the two runs which had higher flow rates. Since the flow patterns in valves and fittings is quite complex and varies from one manufacturer to another, there is no accepted theoretical means of determining these minor losses. Below is an equation used to calculate head loss across an orifice plate.
Ensure that the rubber ball valve in the base of the bucket is open. Another possibility for identical data could be attributed to not enough water being in the pipes. The sensors were then inserted into the two taps on pipe two and head losses were recorded for 30 seconds at six second intervals. A system of isolating valves 25 is provided whereby the pipe to be tested can be selected without disconnecting or draining the system. According to the graph made between friction forces and Reynold number. For higher flow rate experiments, the hydraulic bench supplies the test pipe directly.
The flow is measured by using a venture meter, an orifice meter. Equation 1 can the be used to determine the theoretical head loss if you know the value of f for the pipe. Do not edit them, but. In this experiment, students are to adapt to various ways to measure the flow of essentially incompressible fluids by using the flow measuring apparatus. As a group we agree to work together and contribute equally to make sure the experiment runs as smooth as possible. Laboratory 8 — Head Losses in Pipe Flow.
A second weight would then be added to the weigh bar 10 kg, for instance and the stopwatch stopped when the weigh bar tips a second time. For a smooth pipe, the Re 4000 signifies turbulent flow properties. . A further test pipe is artificially roughened and, at the higher Reynolds' numbers, shows a clear departure from typical smooth bore pipe characteristics. Those fittings such as valves or bends are sufficiently remote to reduce any disturbance from them to ensure the distribution of velocity across the pipe does not vary with the length of the pipe.
Another common way to express minor head loss is in terms of frictional major head loss through an equivalent length, L e, of a straight pipe. There are first aid kits located around the lab, and in case of injury, the assistants in lab will be informed and if necessary 911 may be dialed. Paper 409, 1942 published a summary of representative head loss coefficients for typical pipe fittings. Open and close the appropriate valves to obtain flow of water through the required test pipe. Another approach that was highly beneficial was having the team split up into two groups, one that collected the data for the lab and one that ran calculations. Aerodynamics, Atmospheric pressure, Fluid dynamics 1106 Words 3 Pages Joints and Body Movements Laszlo Vass, Ed. Aim This lab could be used in industry when dealing with a pipe line containing any type of liquid to calculate the Reynolds number and friction factor.
This would increase the accuracy and decrease the discrepancy of results. In addition to the energy lost due to frictional forces, the flow also loses energy or pressure as it goes through fittings, such as valves, elbows, contractions and expansions. As such, the limitations of theory were perhaps one of the major concepts gleaned from the experiment. Simultaneous operation of the flow control valve with the two outlet valves gate and globe shown in the diagram above, will permit adjustment of the static pressure in the apparatus together with the flow rate. It consists of a water loop. The resulting ratio is called the loss coefficient K for the fitting or valve 5 Thus, the minor losses may also be expressed in terms of the velocity head once the loss coefficient has been determined 6 An alternate method for reporting minor losses is to calculate an equivalent length, L eq, of pipe that produces the same head loss as the fitting. In this experiment, we controlled the height of water and determine the flow rate of water along the pipe whereby a more precise and contented results obtained.
Ø To determine the head loss associated with flow of water through standard fittings used in plumbing installations. Lower the dye injector until it is just above the bell moth inlet. Recrystallization is the primary used operation for purifying solid organic compounds that differ in solubility at different temperature. Some of the energy lost in the system is lost in the pipes due to friction in the forms of heat and vibration, and it is obvious that this energy will increase or decrease based on the characteristics of both the fluid and the pipe. Naphthalene melted 10°C less and Benzoic Acid also did not reach the standard melting point. Goals were stated and discusses and both mathematical and conceptualgoals were met.
They measure pressure losses across instruments or components. Introduction The flow of fluid in a pipe under pressure is used to reach many goals. By determining the laminar boundary layer thickness,the team was able to determine which head losses could be calculated using the Blasius Equation. Since there is only one kinesin light gene in the subject, the mutants in that one chain gene exhibit. This information may connect to my final analysis. Normal forces are forces acting perpendicularly.