Scaling or scoring procedures refer to the use of equivalent scales or scores procedures in different contexts. The I is the instrument which unifies the situation and bestows meaning on it. Redefining organizational cultures: An interpretative anthropological approach to corporate narratives. Calibration equivalence refers to the equivalence in monetary units, measures of weight, distance, volume, and other perceptual cues, such as color and shapes. Cultural diversity manifests in all relationships, including research relationships. The purpose is to identify a set of dimensions when designing time equations, on which the costing system is based on, to be then linked to national culture. Sharma and Weathers were one of the first to use G theory to assess the cross-national applicability of a scale.
Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 185-195. The applications of G theory in the marketing literature are also scarce. Thus, researchers often use the etic approach. As a consequence of this, another fundamental characteristic feature of qualitative research has emerged: reflexivity. Special attention should be paid to physical, technical and social administration conditions.
Discuss two positive aspects of the paper. Métodos cualitativos y de observación pp. Some authors suggest assigning interviewers randomly and recording their characteristics. Construct equivalence is concerned with three distinct aspects: functional, conceptual and category equivalence: Functional equivalence deals with whether the concepts, objects or behaviors being studied are equivalent across cultures or countries in terms of the function or the role they perform. The perspective of community ethics suggests that representation of multiple voices, enhancement of moral discernment, and promotion of social change are critical components of ethical research.
The authors then provide an interpretation of the findings why they think they obtained the results that they did. It combines leadership concepts from school research as well as from business. Perhaps the process of renewal of qualitative research methods in the context of cross-cultural and intercultural communication really needs to start with a reflection over the life history of the researcher given that the researcher is also immersed in the norms, values and beliefs of the institutions, communities and movements in which she or he functions, and which give ideological form to the whole process. Des exemples de diverses techniques sont présentés et la discussion de ces méthodes conduit à plusieurs suggestions concernant l'avenir des recherches interculturelles. Craig and Douglas propose three aspects that need to be considered in defining the unit: the geographic scope of the unit for example, country, region, and so on ; the criteria for membership in the unit for example, demographic or socio-economic characteristics, and so on ; and the situational context for example, specific socio-cultural settings, climate context, and so on. Parallel translation is a similar procedure, albeit using two translators with a greater emphasis on wording. This makes it easier for the researcher to identify those cultural traits and norms that need to be understood to produce a better intercultural relation.
Remedies for the two problems 3. Gathering cross-cultural data is, however, not an easy task. Today it is widely accepted that it is an error to imagine that observational evidence enters our field of perception in a way which is totally independent of the theoretical interpretation which is applied to it. Finally, we should never forget the social, political and economic context that determines how differences are valued. Introduction: Culture, communication, and education.
In addition, it makes comparisons easier and increases external validity. In addition, it assumes an etic approach, which can be problematic as equivalent words or constructs in the other language may not exist. First, countries are not always that relevant. This focus suggests analyzing intercultural communicative situations from a constructivist and interpretative perspective. The choice of relevant respondents is a key issue in sampling, since these can vary across cultures or countries.
We introduce to some approaches which are currently used in studying culture. Critical engagement supported this, including the development of methodology to assure trustworthiness of data interpretation and creation of in person and virtual communication strategies to give all cultures voice. When reading the method you can ask yourself: Are the participants, measures, and procedures equivalent , measurement, procedural, sampling in all cultures? Contact: María Assumpta Aneas Departament de Mètodes d'Investigació i Diangòstic en Educació, Facultat de Pedagogía, Universitat de Barcelona Passeig de la Vall Hebron, 171, Edifici Llevant, 2ª planta Dpt. The project included 100 participants in each country. This therefore calls for a need to reconsider alternative means of energy generation for the sub-urban and rural dwellers in Nigeria.
The first refers to those forms of equivalence that have to be addressed before and during data collection. The research topic should be equally important and appropriate in each context, and conceptually equivalent, an issue that will be addressed in the next section. The role of culture theory in the study of culture and intercultural training. We found ways to negotiate language barriers and collaborated to deal with inequity in resources. Equivalence of administration refers to the fact that the research settings and the instructions must be equivalent, not identical.
Consent, research processes, research design, data ownership, and uses of data are also salient issues that arise. Ciencias del lenguaje, competencia comunicativas y enseñanza de la lengua. Much of the recent research in intercultural communication has been directed towards the study of these systems of culturally related meanings. Este artículo analiza los recursos que generan el humor lingüístico característico en la obras breves The Dumb Waiter y Mountain Language, de Harold Pinter, a la luz de la teoría holo-cultural del humor, se-gún la proponen Alford y Alford. They develop and adopt similar practices and behaviors through numerous ways. The effect of culture on perspective taking. To what extend does culture influence such processes? Additionally, differences between gender groups were identified.