During the Late , Gondwana extended from a point at or near the to near the equator, where the stable was positioned, resulting in a mild climate favourable to hosting high-. Types of Climates From the combination of the two letter groups, twelve distinct climates emerge as follows: Tropical Rainforest Climate Af : Rainfall of the driest month is 6 cm or more. The summer months of May and June are very hot with mean monthly temperatures in the region of 35 °C and highs which can sometimes reach 50 °C. Such bursts happen when monsoon winds sweep into the region during July, August, and September. Humid: Eastern and Western coastal area, West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar islands and some other regions are considered as humid region. C represents humid sub-tropical or humid mesothermal climate. The temperatures in the north rise as the vertical rays of the Sun reach the Tropic of Cancer.
Annual rainfall ranges from less than 1,000 millimetres 39 in in the west to over 2,500 millimetres 98 in in parts of the northeast. Daily highs are about 32° Celsius, while night time temperatures average 22° Celsius. Attracted by a low-pressure region centred over South Asia, the mass spawns surface winds that ferry humid air into India from the southwest. The rainy season is from June to September and the annual rainfall is between 75 and 150 cm. In most cases, summer temperatures are not as high in mid-latitude deserts when compared to subtropical deserts. Koppen divided India into nine climatic regions making use of the above scheme Fig. The Arabian Sea branch moves northeast towards the Himalayas.
Based upon Temperature and Precipitation, he divided India into five broad regions. The Himalayan Region: This region embraces the entire Himalayan mountain area which includes from west to east, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, large parts of Uttaranchal, the north hill region of West Bengal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. Stamp used 18°C isotherm of mean monthly temperature for January to divide the country into two broad climatic regions, viz. But, the shortage or failure of water results in the below-average crop yields. Avalanches occur in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. Arid: North-Western India, comprising some parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat is classified as arid region. The average annual rainfall exceeds 200 cm in the east but it is much less in the west.
Precipitation is very low in quantity and very infrequent in distribution, both temporally and spatially. In this zone, a transitional climatic region separating tropical desert from humid sub-tropical savanna and forests, experiences temperatures that are less extreme than those of the desert. In some parts of India, the failure of the monsoons results in water shortages, resulting in below-average crop yields. Though they experience hot summers, temperatures during the coldest months may fall as low as 0 °C 32 °F. Capital letters T and F are similarly used to designate the two subdivisions of polar climate: tundra T and icecap F.
E: Polar climate with no warm season. Winds spill across the Himalayas and flow to the southwest across the country, resulting in clear, sunny skies. The average temperature in winter is 18°-24°C which rises to 32°C in summer. Only central eastern falls under this tract and receives rainfall during the winter months of late November to January. This climate is a transitional climate falling between tropical desert and humid sub-tropical zone, with temperatures which are less extreme than the desert climate. In , particularly the hinterlands of Maharashtra, parts of Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh, somewhat cooler weather prevails.
This is extremely dry climate in which the annual rainfall is only 25 cm and at places it is as little as 10 cm. Less and less precipitation falls, and vegetation begins to dry out. Climatic regions of temperate or continental India, B. This region receives an annual rainfall of 250 cm. These climates are dry because of extreme continentality and the effect of high elevations.
Western disturbances give light winter rainfall in the western part. The dry climate prevails over two parts in India. Winters are severe with snowstorms, strong winds, and bitter cold from Continental Polar or Arctic. The northern slopes receive a low rainfall of 8-10 cm annually due to the rain-shadow effect, while the southern slopes receive 250 cm rainfall. The average annual rainfall is about 200 cm but at places it may be much higher especially on the western slopes of the Western Ghats. Precipitation mainly occurs in the summer from activity. It is found in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and Uttaranchal in the west and Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and parts of upper Assam in the east.
The two Himalayan states in the east, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, receive substantial snowfall. The animated graphic below provides us with a generalized model of the Earth's annual climatic variations. The peninsular interior, western Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab have a semi-arid type of climate D. It requires a minimum amount of calculation. On average, a major or higher cyclone develops every other year. Winter monthly temperatures can be 15 to 25° cooler than summer temperatures. July is on average the coldest and wettest month: over 330 mm 13 in of rain falls on the delta.
Annual rainfall is equal to or greater than Af, but most of the precipitation falls in the 7 to 9 hottest months. By May, most of the Indian interior experiences mean temperatures over 32 °C 90 °F , while maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C 104 °F. E - Polar Climates: with extremely cold winters and summers. The plain of India falls under the warm temperate type of climate with dry winters Cwg. Arid or semi- arid condition prevails in this region throughout the year. Required clothing: Lightweight cotton clothing is advised throughout the year, with an umbrella or raincoat for the monsoon season. Thornthwaite evolved a formula to work out the monthly values of water surplus and water deficit.
These happen when the monsoon winds penetrate this region in the months of July, August and September. The mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures here are 46° C and 6° to 10° C respectively. Caw: Most parts of the northern plain of India have this type of climate where winter tem-perature falls below 18°C. It was considered equivalent to Category 5 hurricane. Temperature of the coolest month above 18°C. Most regions included have less than 10 inches 25 cm of rainfall annually. Two contiguous green areas averaging 22.