In 1538 a Holy League consisting of all the Italian states and Spain was formed to drive the Ottomans back, but it was defeated at the Battle of Preveza. Turning on the Protestant princes of Germany, Charles split their ranks by winning over of Saxony and others, attacked the Schmalkaldic League in 1546, defeated 1547 of Saxony at Mühlberg, and imprisoned. Basic Problems With each of his crowns Charles inherited enormous problems. His commanders, however, opposed this plan, as the season was far advanced. Charles V made overtures to the Safavid Empire to open a second front against the Ottomans, in an attempt at creating a Habsburg-Persian alliance. He would accept admonition from the chapter of the Golden Fleece, would comment on his failings as a warning to his son.
Suspension was of course often accidental and involuntary. Final Failures The decade after the inconclusive 1530s showed more dramatic reversals. Charles V The Holy Roman emperor Charles V 1500-1558 inherited the thrones of the Netherlands, Spain, and the Hapsburg possessions but failed in his attempt to bring all of Europe under his imperial rule. For Charles V personally they were his home, the region where he was born and spent his childhood. Ignatius of Loyola, when the see convened in 1545.
Messengers with political despatches came to him every day. Each country had a peculiar internal structure which gave rise to constitutional opposition to the ruler, and furthermore most of the countries had a tradition in foreign policy related to their specific interests and situation in Europe. Charles later won the loyalty of his Spanish subjects. Of a different type to all the above was the persecution in the Netherlands. It was, indeed, agreed that they should contribute to imperial taxation, and in return receive imperial protection.
It ended after Charles's death, with the Treaty of 1559 , a triumph for Spain. He defeated the Protestant Schmalkaldic League in 1546 —1547, but their cause revived in 1552 with French assistance. After the suppression of the German peasant revolt in 1525 many of the refugees found shelter in the teeming Netherland cities, and heresy took the form, not of Lutheranism, but of Anabaptism, which was believed to be perilous to society and the state. Even these modest goals faced three obstacles: the intractable hostility of Francis I of ruled 1515 —1547 , Ottoman expansion up the valley and in the Mediterranean, and an ongoing crisis in Germany, which linked the religious Reformation begun by to the growth of princely autonomy. Charles shared with France his mother tongue and many cultural forms.
The Dauphin backed by his councillors and the rejected the treaty, and English King Edward invaded France later that year. Charles sent an imperial army to Italy composed mostly of German Lutherans. To pay for the defense of the kingdom, Charles raised taxes. France Much of Charles's reign was taken up by conflicts with France, which found itself encircled by Charles's empire while it still maintained ambitions in Italy. Francis sought the aid of the Danes and Scandinavians.
It had become obvious in any case that Philip could not be elected. His fiscal demands, perhaps ironically, led to a strengthening of provincial government that contributed to Dutch success in the eventual revolt. In 1531 he had secured the election of his younger brother Ferdinand as king of the Romans in return for his help in managing German affairs. He succeeded in detaching Henry of from the alliance, and during the Diet and religious conference at , in 1541, where he was present in person, he brought Philip of , the leading spirit of the Smalkaldic League, under his control. Charles V 1500—58 Holy Roman Emperor 1519—56 and King of , as Charles I 1516—56. Thanks, and great work, Neal. Plus, it was a pretty crazy time in Europe anyway, and Charles found himself in charge of the Catholic-Church-Endorsed Empire in the time of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation.
In the next two decades, his Spanish subjects conquered Mexico and , adding much of the New World to his already enormous inheritance. And the King of Italy and the Lord of the Netherlands and Count Palatine of Burgundy. The Peace of Crépy 1544 ended this inconclusive war. He was conscious of failure, and made few attempts even to enforce the Interim. Charles was very attached to the Burgundian Low Countries where he had been raised. The Kingdom of Navarre was already a matter of contention between and , while and the wrangled over the original Dukedom of as well as Tournai, , Artois, and some lesser territories.
The federative system was equally familiar; Germany, the Netherlands, and even Spain, were in a measure federations. The demands included Charles returning to Spain and giving the Cortes a much greater role in government. Marcel, meanwhile, enlisted Charles the Bad, who asserted that his claim to the throne of France was at least as good as that of King , who had used as the pretext for initiating the. Few men would care to have their lives judged by letters written in the last extremities of gout. During a stay in the of several months, after his return from , and on his arrival in , it became apparent that he had taken the reins of government into his own hands. The treaty, however, contained a secret clause in which Francis I promised support for the forceful eradication of German Protestantism, and in 1545 the Pope offered his support in this undertaking. Still the emperor hoped to win a final victory.
The protruding lower jaw and the thin pale face were redeemed by the fine open brow and the bright speaking eyes. Charles was successful in forcing them back, and in recovering a large part of , but without inflicting any decisive defeat on the. When Charles received news of the Peace of , he determined to go to and settle Italian affairs by a personal interview with the. Arriving in Spain in 1517, Charles was distrusted as a foreigner. Charles delegated increasing responsibility for Germany to his brother Ferdinand while he concentrated on problems elsewhere. Charles, who in 1515 had already taken over the government of the Netherlands, became regent of Aragon and Castile for his mother, who was confined because of mental illness to the castle of Tordesillas.
But again Charles's forces prevailed. Abdications and later life Charles abdicated the parts of his empire piecemeal. He would not aid in expelling the sultan's puppet Zapolya from Ferdinand's kingdom of Hungary, and he suffered the restoration of the ruffianly duke of Wurttemberg, to the grave prejudice of German Catholicism. His initial actions only heightened the resentment against him. Recherches sur la librairie de Charles V, roi de France, 1337-1380 in French. They procrastinated until affairs took an unfavourable turn for the emperor. Until the 1540s, Charles did not spend much time in Germany apart from the Netherlands.